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VAL DI CHIANA: LUCIGNANO

    


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With its characteristic elliptic shape to concentriche ring-like roads, the fortified village of Lucignano constitutes one of the more interesting examples than arrived medieval urban planning until our days. Place in a zone of remarkable strategic importance was to along conteso between the cities of Arezzo, Siena, Florence and Perugia for the dominion of the Val di Chiana. Fortified from the senesi of one encircled building already from 1371, the village ulteriorly was fortified from the fiorentini with the construction, around 1558, of one intentional Fortress from Cosimo de' the Doctors, attributed to architect Bernardo Puccini. Beyond to the Fortress and the Rocca in the country wide features are still visible of wall, characterized from a wide shoe, three of the original doors and two towers with defensive apparatus to sporgere (balcony in masonry).
To cover its roads has the sense of an pleasant game through a intricato maze that finally resolves once it arrives to you in the high zone of the country, comprising the Communal Palace, the Church of S. Francisco, the Collegiata.
The urbanistico system develops through an interesting articulation spaces them and works them between one "rich way", coinciding with it puts into effect it them Via Matteotti exposed to luminous and wide South where the constructed residential palaces from the nobility rise, and one "poor way", coinciding with puts into effect it them via Rome (said also Corsica) exposed to north, the north-west where rooms smaller, characterized from a poor building and constructed from the less well-to-do ranks of the country rise.
The happy geographic positioning of Lucignano, in dominant position,a mt. 414 s.l.m., on the Val di Chiana and the road between Siena and Arezzo, it has rendered it since the antiquity strategically important and of it it has marked the history like medieval castle strongly conteso between the adjacent territories.
For approximately three centuries, from 1200 to the 1500, Lucignano it has endured continues passages of jurisdiction between Siena, Arezzo Florence and Perugia, city from which it had in gift the possibility to fregiarsi in just the coat of arms (tutt' hour adopted) of the Winged Grifone, to which was added a star in order to indicate that the place is found in hill.
The name "Lucignano" probably derives from a founded roman castrum from Licinio consul, of the family omonima become Lucinianum after the conquest from part of Lucio Silla in the sec. a.C.; important reperti moreover archaeological of Etruscan age recovered in several localities they already signal us the presence of takeovers in that age.
Around to 1200 the organization would be begun urban planning from which is been born puts into effect it them system, already completed with XVI the century and that it sees the top of the hill, where initially was the castle, transformed in center of the political and religious power.
In 1300 under the domination of the senesi the jobs of fortification with the completion of the building perimeter and three doors (1371 were completed): door S:Giusto, S.Giovanni door and therefore said door Bulwark, moreover were constructed the Rocca with the two towers.
With the passage of Lucignano under the Doctors, in 1554, important urbanistici participations like the beginning of the construction of the fortress, attributed to Bernardo Puccini, the sanctuary of the Madonna of the Oaks are had, attributed to the Vasari and place outside from the historical center (the 1568) convent of the Cappuccini fathers (1580 ca.) the churches of Misericordia (1582) and Collegiata (1594).
Currently the country maintains its fascination of ancient village intact that it has known to conserve a calm and serene image where the traditions agricultural and that craftsman offer to the visitor a range interesting of products; from the valuable oil extravergine of olive to the honey, from the production and restoration of furnitures to the carving jobs, the most valuable production of ceramics to the oreficeria, from the traditional working of the serene stone to the travertino in order to reach the production of heads of apparel, thanks to the ability and the experience of maestranze professionally prepared.
The name "Lucignano" probably derives from a founded roman castrum from Licinio consul, of the family omonima become Lucinianum after the conquest from part of Lucio Silla in the sec. a.C.; important reperti moreover archaeological of Etruscan age recovered in several localities they already signal us the presence of takeovers in that age. Around to 1200 the organization would be begun urban planning from which is been born puts into effect it them system, already completed with XVI the century and that it sees the top of the hill, where initially was the castle, transformed in center of the political and religious power. In 1300 under the domination of the senesi the jobs of fortification with the completion of the building perimeter and three doors (1371 were completed): S:Giusto door, S.Giovanni door and therefore said door Bulwark, moreover were constructed the Rocca with the two towers. With the passage of Lucignano under the Doctors, in 1554, important urbanistici participations like the beginning of the construction of the fortress, attributed to Bernardo Puccini, the sanctuary of the Madonna of the Oaks are had, attributed to the Vasari and place outside from the historical center (the 1568) convent of the Cappuccini fathers (1580 ca.) the churches of Misericordia (1582) and Collegiata (1594).
Currently the country maintains its fascination of ancient village intact that it has known to conserve a calm and serene image where the traditions agricultural and that craftsman offer to the visitor a range interesting of products; from the valuable oil extravergine of olive to the honey, from the production and restoration of furnitures to the carving jobs, the most valuable production of ceramics to the oreficeria, from the traditional working of the serene stone to the travertino in order to reach the production of heads of apparel, thanks to the ability and the experience of maestranze professionally prepared.
 
Pretorio Palace
The Palace rises to contact with the monumental complex of S. Francisco, the main facade is opened on public square of the Court and introduces numerous coats of arms and stones to death with the symbols of the several podestà that are succeduti in the time. Probably its construction laughed them to the end of the ' 200 even if has then endured modifications in the time, to leave from the half of the ' 300 to work of the fiorentini. Some rooms of according to plan, currently center of the communal offices; they have been frescoed around to the 1812 from the painter and from Milan scultore Luigi Ademollo with neoclassici topics; recently it frescoes of knows it it of the Council have been it restores to you and it returns you to the ancient splendor. From the roof, with cover "to hut" a beautifulst bell tower to sail with the public bell emerges, than for many centuries it has been mass media of the civil authority. After before rampa of scales, in the income, through along corridor Francisco approaches itself the monastero of S., currently center of the local medium school, and coming down two short ones rampe of scales he is approached the chiostro here, hour partially tamponato in the low part and nearly totally in that high one, that he hides under the lime layer frescoed walls. The Palace contains a buried plan, once used after prison, as they demonstrate written written and the graffiti on the walls.
 
Church of the Collegiata
The church is found in the high area centers them with the facade that joins together it, through a ellissoidale scale, to the rampa coming from gives via Rosini and Public square of the Logge, the left wall watches Public square of the Court. The Collegiata rises on the place where anciently they found the church of Saint Michele Archangel and an immense building, comprising one tower. Of this construction, that is the ancient one rocca, the reports narrate to us that it was used after warehouse of powders, the crews and the vettovaglie. May of 1556 during a thunderstorm was destroyed 31 because of a lightning that was pulled down to you. The rests of the ancient church, today used after canonical, are visible in the tergale part of the Collegiata. The construction was planned from the painter and Orazio architect Door, than initially had previewed a cover to capriate lignee, but that in phase of realization it was replaced with once to botte that interests all the navata one centers them. The jobs began in 1592 and they were concluded in 1621. Later on other participations were made, like the external perron, the greater altar and the design of the bell tower, completed in 1772, attributed to Andrea Sink. The church is set up on a system to Latin cross to which they are combines to you sacrestia, canonical bell tower and. The facade is uniform in two parts: that inferior characterized from a vertically divided wall in mattoni from four high ones lesene in serene stone, that advanced one characterized from one masonry in stone. To the center of the facade a majestic one portone in serene stone with interrupted curvilinear eardrum to the center is opened where a giglio is carved, while in the high part a rectangular one in mattoni is placed large finestrone. To the feet of the facade, the beautifulst perron in travertino resumes the ellissoidale design of the city structure of the country. To the inside, in the navata cruise between and transetto, sormontata hemispheric cupola from a covered octagonal tiburio to pavilion is placed one. The sidewalls of the navata one are subdivided in three arched, to which join to those those relative ones to the arms of the transetto. The seicenteschi altars that are found to you collect painted of G. Gemignani from Pistoia, Or Porta, M. Rosselli and G. from Sangiovanni. The scenografico greater altar of To Pozzo is constituted from a base in serene stone on which they rest four slanciate columns that support a curvilinear trabeazione. On the skillful and left side they find the statue of S. Peter and that one of S. Paul. To the center the figure of S. Michele is placed Archangel that drives away the demon.
 
Church of Saint Francisco
The church constitutes one of the most important examples than Franciscan gotica architecture and introduces a basilican system to cross egizia, answering to the outline "to hut" or "to granary" that give the southern Tuscany and from the Umbria it is diffused in all Europe. The Franciscan churches of Cortona and Lucignano between first and more are meant examples to you of the passage of the Franciscans from the phase of beggars to one stabler that saw the construction of churches and convents. The lucignanese construction probably was begun in 1248 and turns out finished in 1289, year in which came confirmed, to the inside of the church, the action of submission to Siena. The monument is inserted in an aggregate of buildings which the oratory of the Corpus Dominions, the Communal Palace, the Monastero di S. Francisco, the Monastero di S. Margherita, the church of the Crocifisso, the Tower of the Monache the only navata one is covered through capriate lignee and the elegant one transetto introduces three costolonate times to cruise. The facade, high and luminous, is realized to tans alternatively of stone in sandstone and travertino, to the center a sormontato portale in travertino is placed from a wide one rosone in grey sandstone. To the right of the facade the oratory of the Corpus is found Dominions and to left the income to chiostro of the convent of S. the Francisco to the center of which one is found reservior. To the inside of the church altars in stone are found (that they go from the XVI to XVIII sec.) and in golden wood and the painting, of the XVII sec.; the controfacciata one introduces one cantoria with organ enclosed in one elaborated golden lignea case of the first half of the ' 500. The church, originally all frescoed, conserve still part of frescoes attributed to Bartolo di Fredi and Taddeo di Bartolo, representing fragments of history of S. Francisco. Of particular fascination and suggestion the large one I fresco situated over the first altar in the skillful wall of the navata one, universal known like "the Triumph of the Dead women", in which, in effective way the precarietà of the human vicissitude is represented. On the greater altar the polittico of Luca di Tomè is found in which, together to the "Madonna with child and the castle of Lucignano Knows to you" is reproduced, of side is a beautifulst "Christ in ligneo cross" of the XIV sec.
 
Its walls and doors
In the Donated report of 1371 of Black of it turns out that "it walls to Them of Lucignano in Val di Chiana made the senesi them....", in fact just in the 1370 lucignanesi decided to submit itself to Siena, but the sistemazione of 1371 traces in part a consolidated city structure between the ' 200 and the first years of the ' 300, as it turns out from documents finds again to you in the going back Dome of Arezzo and to 1330. The three main doors of the country are: S. door Giovanni (said door of under), Door S. Giusto (said door of over) and Door bulwark, therefore called after its closing probably in the ' 500, while the rests of the circular towers that we see on the building circuit have happened to you and go back to the half of the ' 400. S. door Giovanni is exposed to east, introduces a irregular plant to five sides, is constructed with masonry in stone with rincalzi in mattoni, of its cover remains only some traces, the portale to all sixth is in stone. Incamminandosi in counter-clockwise sense along the way of Circonvallazione, after little meters we find a circular tower (said tower of the Picconi from the name of the owner) still very conserved; still continuing our long way "it walls to them rich" we arrive to Door S. Giusto exposed to the south-west towards Siena. This introduces a sormontata rectangular plant from a cover terrace, to which private house is approached from one, supported from once to botte intonacata; the portale is to all sixth with bugnato in sandstone stone. The inside has been recently restored. Still continuing our long walk "it walls to them poor" we arrive to Door exposed Bulwark to the north-west. Anch' it introduces a rectangular plant approximately, one masonry in stone with rifiniture to mattoni covered from a roof to "hut"; the external portale is to all sixth and is sormontato from two openings. From it leave the original road here that connects Lucignano with the castle of the Calcione in order then to continue towards High Palazzuolo, in the common one of Mount S. Savino, and from here in Val d' Arno and to Florence.
 
Sanctuary of the Madonna of the Oaks
The sanctuary of the madonna of the Oaks is found outside them walls countrymen, in the pressed ones of the Medicea Fortress; place of cult and venerazione of the Given pain Madonna, from the ' 700 had one fallen of interest from part of the faithfuls, that although until the first years of the post-war period the water of the famous sink like Source of the Latte that is found to the inside of the church it came made drink to the animals, but also to the women, in how much "it cured the lack of latte and sterility". The history of the Sanctuary is interlaced with the legend, and given the sparsity of documents not always, at least for the years in which it rose, it is possible to make the distinction. The legend tells of a name painter Feliciano to us Batone who painted in one small maestà, situated under one great oak, one Given pain Madonna. The tradition hands on us the news of the first miracle, happened 8 August 1467, when a senese noble young person, chased from its enemies, feeling itself lost put itself to pray and to supplicare this image so that could escape they. The enemies, or because the young person was rendered invisibile, or because they remained confused, did not see it and it was but. The first sure documents say to us that in 1564 the discouragement of two trees of the Common one was authorized in order to realize the beams that served to arrange and to widen the old nail head, than to continuation of the brought back miracle over in that place had been constructed. Since the first years of its construction, the church of the Oaks was a lot attended from the lucignanesi faithfuls whom offering used for its construction left many. The planning of the church comes today attributed to George Vasari, one of the more important you plan of the ' 500, even if probably it could not follow the jobs, because in those years he was engaged in the granducali works to Florence. The first testimonies documented of miracles attributed to the image of the Given pain Madonna go back to the first half of ' 500 (1529), but also in the centuries succeeded to you the reputation of the Sanctuary is remained tied to the numerous miraculous episodes which they refer also the former-ballot for consideration received. The building is characterized from a rectangular plant to three navate with cover to hut realized in correspondence of the navata one centers them; the facade is simple and empty, adorned from a rosone they in serene stone and from two windows centers. The portale was carved in the 1651 from the lucignanese Ippolito Arms. To the inside the navata one centers is covered them from once to botte, interrupted in the transetto from elegant and snello tiburio a cylindrical one, while the two navate lateral ones have one cover with times to cruise. The transetto it is risen from the plan of the navate ones and on this the greater altar is risen, realized in serene stone, on which the image of the Given pain Madonna is represented. From the two openings to flank of the greater altar it is approached the chorus, commissioned lignea work in the 1622 from the father Cristoforo Pontefici; here one is found representing table the Madonna and dated 1569. Still behind a representative finds itself along corridor, frescoed with a cycle some Black episodes of the life of S. Filippo. The parish of the Oaks has been press in the 1985 and annexed to that one of S. Michele Archangel of Lucignano; however still it is opened to the cult. The third Sunday of September the "Festivity of the Sanctuary of the Oaks" is carried out where, with to the religious rituals in honor of the Given pain Madonna, it is possible to appreciate the products of the lucignanese kitchen, to live again the games of a time, and to admire magnificent fireworks them that the evening crowns with dignity the closing of the festivity in a picture of landscaped beauties only.
 
The fortress
The place that commonly to Lucignano comes called "fortresses" finds in a hill little far away from walls of the country; "the fortresses" are not other that a part of the planning and construction of a fortification, planned from G.B. Belluzzi and started from Bernardo Puccini, that it had to serve to the defense of the castle after the conquest from part of the fiorentini around to the half of 1500. After the defeat of Piero Strozzi to They march 2 August of 1554, the first senese city to falling in the hands of the Doctors was the Lucignano neighbor who surrendered 3 August of the same year. Lucignano became therefore the outpost fiorentino more important of the Val di Chiana, a territory that, seppur impaludato in the lower parts, was one of the most fertile granaries of the Tuscany. In Cosimo september it sended to Lucignano trentatreenne gentiluomo fiorentino the Bernardo Puccini, which giuntovi the 24 september of the 1554 was put endured to the job in order to fortify the city. Lucignano to the age already was fortified of five earth bastions, strategically localizes in front of the doors an other to you in correspondence of the cassero ones and finally fifth placed to approximately half covered between S. Door Giovanni and Porta S. Giusto towards south. The Puccini reached Lucignano with a ready plan, probably that one elaborated from the Belluzzi and that it had inherited with to the functions of military engineer, but the plan for being realized had need of modifications and these were brought all from the Puccini. For Lucignano that was adopted that in large had been applied to Florence, that is to take advantage of the presence of a small hill on the western flank of the castle in order to create a united quadrangular fort to you to the castle for means of two long ones walls. Of this we find testimony in I fresco of the Stradano that is found in knows it Cosimo in Old Palace to Florence. I fresco of the Stradano, placed under the round one of the Vasari that represents Cosimo encircled from its architects and engineers, Lucignano extension "with the fort and the others acconci", as the same Vasari explains, ritratto presumablly around to 1556. The jobs of fortification after a good start began, sin from 1555 to endure of the rallentamenti until when, also because of the difficulty in reperire the materials and the recruitment of the labor, was you continue yourself with the moneies "that giornalmente cavano from the bread" and using the women massively. With the loss of the rocca, after its happened destruction because of a lightning that you fell 31 May of 1556, yields necessary to redesign all the strategy of fortification of Lucignano. The 14 July the Puccini, returned to Lucignano from its residence of Pienza, gives to the orders for the construction of one scissor. 3 August comes put down from the Puccini the plant of the scissor. Once again the jobs, after a promising, start endure rallentamenti and delays. Finally the 14 July of the 1557 jobs come completed and for it varies decades to you, the scissor fortress acquits to its military functions, being supplied of public squares of crews and lodgings in order to accommodate a garrison, the fortress never did not endure an onslaught and today it remains like one risen of great fossil put down on the prospicente knoll the country.
 
Church of the Misericordia
The church finds in the vicinities of the complex of the buildings symbol of the civil and religious authority, along via of the Misericordia. It constituted the oratory of the company of the SS. Announced, said also of the Black Clappers, from the color of the cappe worn from the confratelli, whose understood them they were approves of to you in August of 1563. The church has a rectangular plant, to navata only, with raised presbiterio. The facade intonacata with framed door. Along the perimetrali walls they notice of the tamponate openings hour. Inner the church is covered from once to botte and to a third party of the ceiling one is opened small elliptic cupola. Laterally two nails head in serene stone and four columns are placed. To its inside one finds pregevole greater altar in carved wood and gilded on which they are it places to you painted of varied shape of Tuscany school of the end of the XVI sec. The altar is dated 1583. Between the works of particular pregio the Vergine Saint and the Archangel are two statues of terracotta invetriata representatives Gabriel, of robbiana school and placed in the greater one of the two nails head. Being also center of the Confraternita of the Misericordia, to its inside some objects to testimony of the activity carried out from this confraternita in the years are conserved. Between they we can notice one litter stretcher-bearer and "a hauled ambulance" from horses.
 


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